For Singapore Land Transport Authority (LTA) Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) projects, a schedule B4 -Degree Finish Dates with 1st Fix, 2nd Fix and 3rd Fix/Final Fix milestones for each of the Category A, B, C and D rooms and Key Finish milestones dates including Trackworks installation, 3rd Rail DC Power, Internal Overpressure Test, GenSet Test, Overpressure and Airflow Regime Test and Civil Defence Integrated Systems Test will be issued. Above is a sample.
Source: Energy University: Schneider Electric
Data Center Physical Infrastructure consists of the seven elements
- 🗄️Racks and Physical Structure
- 🛡️Security and 🔥Fire Protection
There are 3 keys components to Data Center physical infrastructure
- Information Technology which consist of data processing, data storage and communications, both hardware and software
- Process which need to be defined and documented and standardized.
- People who have the right levels of skills and training with adequate manpower.
Some of the challenges face by Data Center today includes
- Rapid changes in IT Technology
- High density blade servers power consumption and head dissipation.
- High operating and service cost
- Regulatory requirements from Infocomm Media Development Authority (IMDA), Singapore Civil Defence Force (SCDF), Building and Construction Authority(BCA),etc
- Server consolidation
- Increasing availability expectations.
- ⚡Power ⚡
- Lifecycle Costs
- Adaptability/ Scalability
- Maintenance / Serviceability
Integration of Power subsystem components towards pre-engineered, pre-manufactured solutions. Such solutions should be
Cooling systems that are required to remove heat from data center are
- Computer Room Air Conditioners (CRAC)
- Associated subsystems components linked to CRAC
- Cooling Towers
- Duct works
- Pipe works
- Rack-level distribution devices
- Lifecycle Costs
- Adaptability/ Scalability
- Maintenance / Serviceability
–Move away from unique system design towards more open system design
–Direct water cool system for high density racks above 10kw or large group of racks above 6kW
3. 🗄️Racks and Physical Structure
The most critical physical elements are
- IT racks, which contains the IT equipment such as servers, switches, routers, computer, etc
- Physical room elements such as False ceiling and Raised Floor Systems
Electronic Industries Alliance EIA 310 is a common standard used for 19 inch rack mounting telecommunications and IT equipment.
Rack and Physical Structure Challenges
- Lifecycle Costs
- Adaptability/ Scalability
- Maintenance / Serviceability
Rack and Physical Structure Solutons
- Be adaptable to changing requirements
- Improve availability and cost effectiveness.
4. 🛡️Security and 🔥Fire Protection Systems
Security and Fire protection systems are required to protect the integrity, safety and availability of the Data Center.
|Physical Security Devices||Fire Detection and Suppression|
|Biometric devices||Smoke Detector|
|Keys||Clean Agent(Gas) Fire Suppression systems eg. FM200, Novec 1230|
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) NAFA 75- standard for the protection of electronic computer and data processing equipment. In the 2003 edition of NFPA 75 (184.108.40.206) allows data centers to continue to power the electronic equipment upon activation of gaseous agent total flooding system,provided the data center has the following risk considerations:
- economic loss from loss of function or loss of records
- economic loss from value of equipment
- life safety aspects of function
- fire threat of the installation to occupants of exposed property
Cabling make up a significant portion of the IT budget, thus in order to avoid unnecessary wastage is through Proper Design and selection of Core Components.
Proper usage of Cable Tray and management system devices will help to reduce downtime due to human errors and overheating.
Data Cable best practice are
- Overhead deployment
- Underfloor deployment (Raised Floor System)
- Rack Installation
- Cable Testing ( IT Manager can request for data cable test report)
Electrical Cable Installation (Singapore Standard SS 638 : 2018 or CP5)
- Follow Code of Practice for Electrical Installation (Singapore Standard SS 638 : 2018 or previously known as CP5)
- Do not exceed the manufacturers bending radius recommendation. Usually more than 6D (cable outside diameter, D) to 8D.
- Continuous Load- any load which is left on more than 3hours
- De-rate electric current amperages (A) and wire size by 20%
- De-rating approach helps avoid overheated wires, short circuit and fire
- If the copper in the wire is insufficient for the electric current amperages requires, the insulation will melt.
Management is an element that encompass all other elements and having visibility to all the components of the physical infrastructure.
Management include the following
- Building Management System (BMS)
- Network Management Systems (NMS)
- Element Managers
- Other monitoring hardware and software.
- Maintain System Availability
- Managing problems
- Managing changes
Essentials Category of Data Center Managements include
- Incident Management
- Change Management
- Capacity Management
- Availability Management
A holistic Data Center Management solution should be integrated with open IT systems in order
- Manage rapid change
- Achieve demanded levels of availability
- Control Total Cost Of Ownership (TCO)
There is a broad range of services required to support the Data Center Systems
- Consulting and Design Services
- Installation Services
- Maintenance and Repair Services
- Monitoring Services
- Decommissioning Services
Data Center availability success is highly dependent on the supporting services.
Project cost management can utilize Microsoft Power BI (Business Intelligence) for data analysis of the cost data and generate Data Visualization as shown below. As Microsoft Power BI is a Cloud base application, it can be sync between the desktop and the mobile phone application which is ideal for regional manager to keep tap of updates on the go.
Through Data visualization, large amount of data can be analyze in a shorter time.
As Microsoft Power BI is an interactive software, it can capture the audience attention by pairing with Microsoft Teams Video conferencing software for better results.
Agile Project Management with SCRUM
Agile project management is an iterative approach to delivering a project throughout its life cycle. Scrum is one of the agile methodologies designed to guide teams in the iterative and incremental delivery of a product. Often referred to as “an agile project management framework,” its focus is on the use of an empirical process that allows teams to respond rapidly, efficiently, and effectively to change.
|Traditional project management||Agile Project Management -SCRUM|
|Fix requirements to control time and cost||Fixes Time and Cost to control requirements|
|Business knows the product and require the project management to execute base on requirement.||Frequent feedback collaboration with business to create the product.|
|Design is defined during project initiation or early in project to translate into project requirements -Design Freeze||Design start with a broad vision and constant development toward the end product.
Stacey Diagram- when to use Agile Project Management
|Predictive||Fixed||Performed once for entire project||Single Delivery||Manage Cost|
|Iterative||Dynamic||Repeated until correct||Single Delivery||Correctness of solution|
|Incremental||Dynamic||Performed once for given increment||Frequent smaller deliveries||Speed|
|Agile||Dynamic||Repeat until correct||Frequent small deliveries||Customer value via frequent deliveries and feedback.|
Stacey Diagram- when to use Agile Project Management
Project Manager can adopt a servant leadership role in an agile project and take up the role of a Coach, promoting
- Purpose : Work with team to define “WHY?”
- People : Team to work together to contribute across the project work.
- Process: Results oriented process. Team focus process.
Agile Roles in local Singapore terms
- Cross-Functional Team Members (“Kay Poh” King)
- Product Owner (“Sai Kang” Warrior) -Customer Facing
- Team Facilitator (“One Leg Kick”)
Sample Agile Management Digital Cloud base Kanban board -Trello
Currently there are a number of collaboration software like Trello, Monday.com which can be used for the digital Kanban board which can sync with your application on your laptop, PC and mobile phone application and save you time in transferring information as it is Cloud based.
- Agile measures the actual delivery from the team
- Working product
- Smaller deliverables
Agile Manifesto Values
Working software over comprehensive documentation.
Working software is the primary measure of progress.
|No||Manifestos Value||Agile Practices|
|1||Individuals and interactions over process and tools.||Servant Leadership
Regular Stand Up
|2||Working software over comprehensive documentation||Backlogs
|3||Customer collaboration over contract negotiation.||Measurements in agile projects
Procurement and contracts
|4||Responding to change over following a plan.||Retrospective
SCRUM- Agile Project Management Methodology
Scrum –Development Team (Squad)
- 3 to 9 members max
- Contribute to the project daily
- Cross functional
- Can change only between sprints
- Creates the definitions of “DONE”
- All are called “Developers”
- Management Stakeholders
- Project Manager
- Product Owner
- Scrum Master
- Development Team
- Max 15 minutes
- Answer 3 questions on lesson learned. DONE>DOING>TO DO
- “Parking Lot”
Fire Safety Certificate 消防安全證書
A Fire Safety Certificate (FSC) provides for the safety of the building’s occupants. Therefore, owners and their Qualified Persons (QP) whom they have engaged for their fire safety works are required to apply and obtain the FSC (application takes about 1 week)before using or occupying the premises. The FSC is only issued after full completion of all fire safety works in the project. Failure to comply with this is an offence under the Fire Safety Act and the owner is liable to court action.
Temporary Fire Permit 臨時防火許可證
A building owner may also obtain a Temporary Fire Permit (TFP) to use the premises for a limited period before obtaining the FSC. The TFP is only issued if the fire safety works of the project have been satisfactorily completed with only very minor outstanding issues. The timeframe to obtain the FSC after the TFP is issued depends on the size, type and complexity of the project.
Notice of Approval (NOA) 批准通知書
Usually the Qualified Person (QP) will submit a approved and endorsed design drawings (Architectural, Mechanical & Electrical Drawings) to SCDF for a Notice Of Approval (takes about 2 weeks) before construction start. An Acknowledge Letter will be issue by SCDF as shown below for receipt of drawings /plans.
You should only apply for an FSC/TFP after:
- plans for the fire safety works of the project have been approved and
- works have been fully completed in accordance to SCDF’s requirements.
You also need an Inspection Certificate issued by a Registered Inspector (RI). Depending on the type of project, a RI (Architecture) and a RI (M & E) may be needed. Owners must engage RIs to inspect and certify the fire safety works of their project before applying to SCDF for an FSC/TFP.
|1||Appointment of Qualified Person (QP)
->Letter of Appointment of QP
|2||Appointment of Registered Inspector (Arch & M&E)
->Letter of Appointment for RI
|3||Finalization of Design Layout Drawings||1 -2weeks
(depends on project complexity)
|4||Establish Fire layout plan||1 week|
|5||Submission of drawings and plan to SCDF for Notice of Approval (NOA)
(Acknowledge letter to be receive.)
|6||Notice of Approval issued by SCDF||1-2 weeks after submission if SCDF do not have comments.|
|7||Registered Inspection by RI(Arch) and RI(M&E)||1 -3 days
(depend on project complexity)
|8||Rectification of RI comments||1 week|
|9||RI(Arch) and RI(M&E) submit to QP
1. RI Inspection Certificate (Form 1 and 2)
2. RI Report
|10||SCDF Fire Safety Certificate application by QP through CORENET e-submission with
1. TFP/FSC application form [FSSD-0-CSCDFSC01]
2. CFSW (Certification for Fire Safety Works form (FSSD-0-CFSW)
3. RI Inspection Certificates (Form 1 and 2)
4. RI Inspection Report
5. Letter of Appointment for RI
|Application takes about 1-2 weeks.|
More information at the following SCDF link:
- ISO-14644-1 Test Record
A room in which contamination of airborne particles is controlled and which is constructed and used in a manner to minimize the introduction, generation, and retention of particles inside the room and in which other relevant parameters, eg. Temperature, humidity, and pressure are controlled as necessary.
- FED STD 209E
A room in which the concentration of airborne particles is controlled and which contains one or more clean zones.
A define space in which the concentration of airborne particles is controlled to meet a specified airborne particulate cleanliness class.
ISO Class 4 Cleanroom
352 airborne particles at 0.5µm size within a volume unit of 1m².
Federal Standard Class 10 Cleanroom
10 airborne particles at 0.5µm size within a volume unit of 1ft².
- As Built
A cleanroom (facility) that is complete and ready for operation with all the services connected and functional but without equipment or personnel in the facility.
A cleanroom (facility) in normal operation with all services functioning and with equipment and personnel, if applicable present and performing their normal work functions in the facility.
- How to keep cleanroom clean?
Influencing factors that can harm the product/ process. Operator
- Particulate and Gaseous Contaminants
- Environmental factors eg. Vibrations, heat, rain ducts.
Particulate and Gaseous Contaminants
- Cleanliness of Air
- Cleaning of surface of working place
- Dead and Living particles
- Inert and toxic particles
- List of possible Air Contaminants in a clean room
- Aerosols – No hairspray /perfume
- Contaminants- Environmental Factors
- Temperature of air
- Humidity of air
- Electro Magnetic Disturbances (EMD)
- Electrostatics Disturbances (ESD)
- Major Equipment
- Laminar Air Flow
- HEPA Filter
- High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter (HEPA) Filter
- A HEPA Filter is defined as having a minimum efficiency in removing small particles ( approx. equal to 0.3µm) from air of 99.7%
- ULPA Filter
- Ultra Low Penetration Air Filter (ULPA) Filter
- A UPLA filter is defined as having a minimum efficiency in removing small particles (appro equal to 0.1µm ~ 0.2µm) from air of 99.999%.
An agent of biological origin that has the capacity to produce deleterious effects on humans, i.e. micro-organisms, toxins, and allergens derived from those organisms; and allergens and toxins derived from higher plants and animals.
- BioSafety (definition)
The application of combinations of laboratory practice and procedures, laboratory facilities and safety equipment when working with potentially infectious microorganisms.
- Biosafety Level (BSL)
- BSL1 – agents not known to cause diseases.
- Suitable for work involving well-characterized agents not known to cause disease in healthy adult humans and of minimal potential hazard to laboratory personnel and the environment
- BSL2 -agents associated with diseases.
- Suitable for work involving agents of moderate potential hazard to personnel and the environment
- BSL3-indegious /exotic agents associated with human diseases and with potential for aerosol transmission.
- Suitable for work with infectious agents which may cause serious or potentially lethal disease as a result of exposure by inhalation route.
- BSL4 – dangerous / exotic agents of life-threatening nature.
Suitable for work with dangerous and exotic agents that pose a high individual risk of aerosol- transmitted laboratory infectious and life threatening disease.
IFC 2015, Section 608
Section 608 applies to stationary storage battery systems having an electrolyte capacity of more than 50 gal for flooded lead-acid, nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd), and VRLA or more than 1,000 lb for Li-ion and lithium-metal-polymer used for facility standby power, emergency power, or UPS.
As defined by IFC 608.6.1, room ventilation:
Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and the following:
- For flooded lead-acid, flooded Ni-Cd, and VRLA batteries, the ventilation system shall be designed to limit the maximum concentration of hydrogen to 1% of the total volume of the room.
- Continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not less than 1 cfm/sq ft of floor area of the room.
Exception: Li-ion and lithium-metal-polymer batteries shall not require additional ventilation beyond that which would normally be required for human occupancy of the space in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
The two ventilation requirements are not an “either/or” permissive option. This is contrary to the requirements of NFPA 1.
Other generic provisions of IFC Section 608 include the following:
- Must prevent access to unauthorized personnel. This can be accomplished by either locating in separate room or in noncombustible cabinets. They may be located in the same room with the equipment they support.
- Must provide spill control and neutralization for batteries with free-flowing electrolyte (i.e., flooded cell batteries). No specific threshold is given, but it is assumed to apply where greater than 50 gal. Not required for VRLA or lithium.
- Must have proper supervision of ventilation system.
- Must have signage on door.
- Must have smoke detection.
- Requires thermal runaway protection for VRLA batteries.
- Li-ion and lithium-metal batteries don’t require ventilation.
NFPA 1-2015, Chapter 52
NFPA 1 is not as frequently adopted by municipalities as the IFC. While the basic requirements of NFPA 1 generally parallel those of the IFC, the technical provisions within NFPA 1 do have significant difference that can impacted the design of related battery ventilation systems. These requirements are as follows:
Chapter 52 applies to stationary storage battery systems having an electrolyte capacity of more than 100 gal in sprinklered buildings or 50 gal in nonsprinklered buildings for flooded lead-acid, Ni-Cd, and VRLA batteries or 1,000 lbs for Li-ion and lithium-metal-polymer batteries used for facility standby power, emergency power, or UPS. This is a significantly lower threshold than that in IFC.
NFPA 1, 52.3.6 Ventilation indicates:
For flooded lead-acid, flooded Ni-Cd, and VRLA batteries, ventilation shall be provided for rooms and cabinets in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and one of the following:
- The ventilation system shall be designed to limit the maximum concentration of hydrogen to 1% of the total volume of the room during the worst-case event of simultaneous “boost” charging of all the batteries in accordance with nationally recognized standards.
- Continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not less than 1 cfm/sq ft of floor area of the room or cabinet.
This language allows for significantly more flexibility than IFC. Other provisions of Chapter 52 include the following, which are not addressed in the IFC:
- In assembly, educational, detention, health care, day care, etc., battery systems shall be located in a room separate from other portions of the building and be 2-hour fire-rated.
- Thermal runaway protection is required for lithium batteries.
- Spill control is required where there are more than 55 gal in individual vessels or an aggregate capacity of greater than 1,000 gal.
- The battery environment shall be controlled or analyzed to maintain temperatures in a safe operating range for the specific battery technology used. In the case of VRLA batteries, they’re typically rated for an ambient of 77˚F. Although it is not specifically stated, this effectively requires that air conditioning be provided for most battery rooms.
Lithium Ion Battery Fire Video
Cloud-Based IT Audit Process
Cloud-Based IT Governance
System and Infrastructure Life Cycle Management for the Cloud
Cloud-Based IT Service Delivery and Support
Protection and Privacy of Information Assets in the Cloud
Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery
Global Regulation and Cloud Computing
The above photo show the different stages of 11kV Cable termination into a Ring Main Unit (RMU).
In Stage 2, the 11kV cable has been pulled into the RMU and the cable end has been prepared for termination to the RMU. Note the grounding braided tape connected to the housing and the insulation sleeve which has been put in place before the termination begin.
The above photo show the stage 3 or 4 when the cable termination is completed. Note the grounding tape and data cable installation.