UPS Room – Related Fire Code

 IFC 2015, Section 608

Section 608 applies to stationary storage battery systems having an electrolyte capacity of more than 50 gal for flooded lead-acid, nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd), and VRLA or more than 1,000 lb for Li-ion and lithium-metal-polymer used for facility standby power, emergency power, or UPS.

As defined by IFC 608.6.1, room ventilation:

Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and the following:

  1. For flooded lead-acid, flooded Ni-Cd, and VRLA batteries, the ventilation system shall be designed to limit the maximum concentration of hydrogen to 1% of the total volume of the room.
  2. Continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not less than 1 cfm/sq ft of floor area of the room.

Exception: Li-ion and lithium-metal-polymer batteries shall not require additional ventilation beyond that which would normally be required for human occupancy of the space in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

The two ventilation requirements are not an “either/or” permissive option. This is contrary to the requirements of NFPA 1.

Other generic provisions of IFC Section 608 include the following:

  • Must prevent access to unauthorized personnel. This can be accomplished by either locating in separate room or in noncombustible cabinets. They may be located in the same room with the equipment they support.
  • Must provide spill control and neutralization for batteries with free-flowing electrolyte (i.e., flooded cell batteries). No specific threshold is given, but it is assumed to apply where greater than 50 gal. Not required for VRLA or lithium.
  • Must have proper supervision of ventilation system.
  • Must have signage on door.
  • Must have smoke detection.
  • Requires thermal runaway protection for VRLA batteries.
  • Li-ion and lithium-metal batteries don’t require ventilation.

NFPA 1-2015, Chapter 52

NFPA 1 is not as frequently adopted by municipalities as the IFC. While the basic requirements of NFPA 1 generally parallel those of the IFC, the technical provisions within NFPA 1 do have significant difference that can impacted the design of related battery ventilation systems. These requirements are as follows:

Chapter 52 applies to stationary storage battery systems having an electrolyte capacity of more than 100 gal in sprinklered buildings or 50 gal in nonsprinklered buildings for flooded lead-acid, Ni-Cd, and VRLA batteries or 1,000 lbs for Li-ion and lithium-metal-polymer batteries used for facility standby power, emergency power, or UPS. This is a significantly lower threshold than that in IFC.

NFPA 1, 52.3.6 Ventilation indicates:

For flooded lead-acid, flooded Ni-Cd, and VRLA batteries, ventilation shall be provided for rooms and cabinets in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and one of the following:

  1. The ventilation system shall be designed to limit the maximum concentration of hydrogen to 1% of the total volume of the room during the worst-case event of simultaneous “boost” charging of all the batteries in accordance with nationally recognized standards.
  2. Continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate of not less than 1 cfm/sq ft of floor area of the room or cabinet.

This language allows for significantly more flexibility than IFC. Other provisions of Chapter 52 include the following, which are not addressed in the IFC:

  • In assembly, educational, detention, health care, day care, etc., battery systems shall be located in a room separate from other portions of the building and be 2-hour fire-rated.
  • Thermal runaway protection is required for lithium batteries.
  • Spill control is required where there are more than 55 gal in individual vessels or an aggregate capacity of greater than 1,000 gal.
  • The battery environment shall be controlled or analyzed to maintain temperatures in a safe operating range for the specific battery technology used. In the case of VRLA batteries, they’re typically rated for an ambient of 77˚F. Although it is not specifically stated, this effectively requires that air conditioning be provided for most battery rooms.

Lithium Ion Battery Fire Video

Cloud Computing Audit Checklist

 by Jeff 

Cloud-Based IT Audit Process

11_Cloud-Based IT Audit Process

Cloud-Based IT Governance

12_Cloud Based Governance

System and Infrastructure Life Cycle Management for the Cloud

13_System and Infrastructure Life Cycle Management for the Cloud

Cloud-Based IT Service Delivery and Support

14_

Protection and Privacy of Information Assets in the Cloud

15

Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery

16

Global Regulation and Cloud Computing

17

Medium Voltage 11kV Cable Termination to a Ring Main Unit

01_11kV Cable Termination to RMU

The above photo show the different stages of 11kV Cable termination into a Ring Main Unit (RMU).

In Stage 2, the 11kV cable has been pulled into the RMU and the cable end has been prepared for termination to the RMU. Note the grounding braided tape connected to the housing and the insulation sleeve which has been put in place before the termination begin.

07

The above photo show the stage 3 or 4 when the cable termination is completed. Note the grounding tape and data cable installation.

Medium Voltage 11kV Cable Joint Demonstration

Remove 1 meter of the Red [Oversheath];to expose the [Armouring] – Single Layer of galvanised circular steel wires – to be cut away.

Insert collar under the [Armouring] and tighten with external collar.

Remove black [Sheath], [Tape Binder], white[Laying up] to expose the copper[Metallic Screen].

Remove black insulation Screen to expose grey insulation.

Repeat for 2nd Cable.

Expose 10cm of the conductor, clean, add insulation and prepare for insulation test.

Insulation test before mechanical connection of cable conductors.

IMG_6265

Remember to insert the final Oversheath in the last step before you joint the cable.

Mechanical joint of conductors, with heat shrink insulation and wrap over with braiding tape.

Wrapping of Armouring steel guard wire and testing insulation.